In order for you to make an informed decision about what is the best suitable solution for your pain, we have gathered the most recent and relevant papers and articles from highly trusted expert sources.
Heel pain, mostly caused by plantar fasciitis (PF), is a common complaint of many patients who requiring professional orthopedic care and are mostly suffering from chronic pain beneath their heels. The present article reviews studies done by preeminent practitioners related to the anatomy of plantar fasciitis and their histo-pathological features, factors associated with PF, clinical features, imaging studies, differential diagnoses, and diverse treatment modalities for treatment of PF, with special emphasis on non-surgical treatment.
Sciatica affects many people. The most important symptoms are radiating leg pain and related disabilities. Patients are commonly treated in primary care but a small proportion is referred to secondary care and may eventually have surgery.
RA is an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology that primarily targets synovial tissues, cartilage and bone, and is the most common form of immune-mediated arthritis. Although the armamentarium of therapies to treat RA is extensive, optimal symptom control and management of the disease have been elusive.
The growing epidemic of type 2 diabetes is one of the leading causes of premature morbidity and mortality worldwide, mainly due to the micro- and macrovascular complications associated with the disease. A growing body of evidence suggests that although the risk of developing complications is greater with glucose levels beyond the established threshold for diagnosis – increasing in parallel with rising hyperglycemia—individuals with glucose levels in the prediabetic range are already at increased risk. Early intervention, ideally as soon as abnormalities in glucose homeostasis are detected, is of great importance to minimize the burden of the disease. However, as the early stages of the disease are asymptomatic, diagnosing prediabetes and early overt type 2 diabetes is challenging.
The results of laboratory studies suggest that electrical stimulation delivered by a TENS unit reduces pain through nociceptive inhibition at the presynaptic level in the dorsal horn, thus limiting its central transmission. The electrical stimuli on the skin preferentially activate low-threshold, myelinated nerve fibers.
The type of stimulation delivered by the TENS unit aims to excite (stimulate) the sensory nerves, and by so doing, activate specific natural pain relief mechanisms. For convenience, if one considers that there are two primary pain relief mechanisms which can be activated : the Pain Gate Mechanism and the Endogenous Opioid System, the variation in stimulation parameters used to activate these two systems will be briefly considered.
Electrical stimulation of muscles is used by some athletes to increase strength. This is the type of training you see sometimes where electrodes are placed on the skin and the muscles twitch from the current. Theoretically, this method can be used as a means of improving recovery too, but research in this area has been limited.